| (*) Appears as a top ten tax haven in all three lists; 9 major tax havens meet this criterion, Ireland, Singapore, Switzerland and the Netherlands (the Conduit OFCs), and the Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong and Bermuda (the Sink OFCs).
(†) Also appears as one of 5 Conduit OFC (Ireland, Singapore, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom), in CORPNET's 2017 research; or
(‡) Also appears as a Top 5 Sink OFC (British Virgin Islands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong, Jersey, Bermuda, in CORPNET's 2017 research.
(Δ) Identified on the first, and largest, OECD 2000 list of 35 tax havens (the OECD list only contained Trinidad & Tobago by 2017).
The strongest consensus amongst academics regarding the world's largest tax havens is therefore: Ireland, Singapore, Switzerland and the Netherlands (the major Conduit OFCs), and the Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong and Bermuda (the major Sink OFCs), with the United Kingdom (a major Conduit OFC) still in transformation.
Of these ten major havens, all except the United Kingdom and the Netherlands featured on the original Hines–Rice 1994 list. The United Kingdom was not a tax haven in 1994, and Hines estimated the Netherlands's effective tax rate in 1994 at over 20% (Hines identified Ireland as having the lowest effective tax rate at 4%). Four of them, Ireland, Singapore, Switzerland (3 of the 5 top Conduit OFCs), and Hong Kong (a top 5 Sink OFC), featured in the Hines–Rice 1994 list's 7 major tax havens subcategory; highlighting a lack of progress in curtailing tax havens.
In terms of proxy indicators, this list, excluding Canada, contains all seven of the countries that received more than one US tax inversion since 1982 (see here). In addition, six of these major tax havens are in the top 15 GDP-per-capita, and of the four others, three of them, the Caribbean locations, are not included in IMF-World Bank GDP-per-capita tables.
In a June 2018 joint IMF report into the effect of BEPS flows on global economic data, eight of the above (excluding Switzerland and the United Kingdom) were cited as the world's leading tax havens.
📮 이메일 무료상담 📧 firstname.lastname@example.org
(시간대가 다른 국가별 현지 변호사들과 실시간 정보를 제공하고 있사오니 정확한 전달을 위해 전화보다 이메일로 문의해 주시기 바랍니다.)
To Find Blueocean, Taste Different Soluton
고도의 국제법 전문가 그룹 ㅡ 국제법률연구원
International Legal Research Institute. 🌐www.ilri.co.kr
Info 24hr. ☏[Korea 82] (0)507-1350-0621 / (0)10-5295-0621 / (0)2-557-3476 📧email@example.com
Law Dept. ☏(0)507-1351-0621 📧 firstname.lastname@example.org
Education Dept. ☏(0)507-1352-0621 📧email@example.com
Finance Dept. ☏(0)507-1353-0621 📧firstname.lastname@example.org
Press Dept. ☏(0)507-1354-0621
Administration Dept. 📧email@example.com
Secretary Dept. 📧firstname.lastname@example.org
Court Auction Dept. ☏(0)507-1420-0621